- Place Type
- Area was center of civilization from 10th mill. BC; Sumerians arrived 3500 BC; Akkadian empire developed 2350 BC, then Babylonian (18th cen. BC) & Assyrian (7th cen. BC); was invaded by Persians, Alexander, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs (7th cen.) & Ottomans; official language is Arabic, though English is also widely spoken; Kurdish is official language in Kurdish Autonomous Region.
- Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN)