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The area was originally part of Persian and Alexander's empires. It became part of the Turkoman dynasty in the 10th century, the Mongol Empire ca. 1400, and the Mogul Empire in late 15th century. The area formed a separate unit in the mid-18th century and was the nucleus of the Afghan Empire. Britain fought Persia and Russia for the area throughout the 19th century. Official languages are Pashto and Dari Persian, though Russian, English, French and German are also spoken. It is often considered both a part of South Asia, and geopolitically, part of Central Asia.
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